Findlay M. Pate

Findlay PateCenter Director and Professor
Beef Cattle Management


Research Program

Research Focus

Nutritional studies with molasses-based supplements for grazing brood cows and growing heifers:

  • molasses-urea mixtures
  • molasses and natural protein slurries
  • feather meal
  • cottonseed meal
  • waste fats

Cow-calf management studies:

  • breeding season
  • animal genetics
  • range management

Pasture management studies:

  • pasture fertilization
  • perennial grasses
  • tropical legumes

Administrative Responsibilities

Was responsible for leadership of research and extension efforts and management of the Range Cattle Research and Education Center with seven research and extension faculty, and 23 support staff. The center had 2840 acres, 50 buildings and 1500 head of cattle. Developed and evaluated research mission of the Range Cattle REC through faculty retreats, industry contacts and meetings with other research faculty and extension staff within IFAS. Developed an annual operating budget of $250,000 and coordinate expenditures. Meet with visitors, arranged schedules and programs for various groups, held field days, addressed civic and agricultural groups, and participated in various civic and industry associations. Attended and participated in industry, institutional, and extension meetings at the local, state and national level to stay current and long-term research and extension needs and new developments.


Curriculum Vitae


  • Ph.D. University of Georgia. Animal Nutrition. 1970
  • M.S. Oregon State University. Animal Nutrition. 1967
  • B.S. University of Georgia. Animal Science. 1965


  • University of Florida, Agricultural Research and Education Center at Ona, 1983 to 2005, Center Director and Professor.
  • University of Florida, Everglades Research and Education Center at Belle Glade:
    • 1982 to 1983 Professor
    • 1975 to 1982 Associate Professor
    • 1970 to 1975 Assistant Professor

Selected Grants and Contracts


  • 1982-84 $40,000 - USDA, Principle Investigator
  • 1983 $ 8,000 - Frust-McNess Company, Principle Investigator
  • 1984 $10,000 - Hoffman - La Roche, Principle Investigator.
  • 1985-88, $ 16,000 - American-Hoechst Corp., Principle Investigator.
  • 1985 $ 3,000 - Fearing Corp., Principle Investigator.
  • 1989-91 $ 17,000 - Allied Fibers and Plastics, Principle Investigator.
  • 1992-94 $30,000 - Southeastern Poultry By-products Council, Principle Investigator.
  • 1994 $ 5,000 - United States Sugar Corporation, Principle Investigator.
  • 1993-95 $29,000 - Fats and Proteins Foundation, Principle Investigator.
  • 1995-96 $20,000 - Hoechst-Roussel Corp., Principle Investigator.
  • 1996-97 $30,000 - Elanco Corp., Principle Investigator.

Gift of dollars to SHARE for Research Program

  • 1982-83 $ 15,500 - Symbio, Inc.
  • 1985 $25,000 - U. S. Sugar Corp.
  • 1989-94 $ 7,000 - Boeringer Ingelheim Corp.
  • 1991 $ 8,500- Allied Signal Corp.
  • 1995 $20,000 - Adams Ranch, Inc.
  • 1994 $12,000 - Deseret Ranch, Inc.


  • 982 $44,000 - Big B Ranch, Inc. Gift of Farm and Lab Equipment
  • 1983-96 $352,400 - United States Sugar Corp., Molasses-based liquid feed
  • 1989-96 $ 48,800 - American Protein, Inc., Hydrolyzed feather meal
  • 1989-91 $ 4,000 - RMI-F Plastics Corp., Feed troughs
  • 1989-91 $ 3,700 - Allied Signal, Inc., Ammonium sulfate
  • 1991-96 $ 21,000 - MDS-AGVET, Merck Corp., Anthelmintic for cattle parasites

University Governance and Service

  • 1982-83 Member, Florida Agriculture in the '80s Animal Science Commodity Committee.
  • 1983-96 Member of IFAS Administrative Council.
  • 1984-96 Coordinator of ten (10) Range Cattle Research and Education Center Field Days.
  • 1985 Member, Animal Science Chair Search and Screen Committee.
  • 1988-89 Chair, IFAS Research Center Directors Group.
  • 1989 Member, Beef Cattle Short Course Organizing Committee.
  • 1989 Member, IFAS Sustainable Agriculture Committee.
  • 1990 Member, Animal Science Chair Search and Screen Committee.
  • 1996 Member, Caribbean Basin Agricultural Research Proposal Evaluation Committee.
  • 1996-97 Chair, UF/IFAS Research Center Directors Group.
  • 1996-99 Member, IFAS Facilities and Space Committee.

Consultations Outside the University

  • 1982 Technoserve Inc.; a non-profit technical assistance firm in Norwalk, Conn. aiding developing countries. Consultation involved a survey and assistance in developing cattle feeding programs for low income farmers in El Salvador.
  • 1982-1985 Advisor to Pantaleon; sugarcane and cattle company in Guatemala. Developed 1000 head feedlot program using sugarcane feeds and management system for 3000 head cow-calf operation.
  • 1982 Advisor to Empecadora Alus, S.A. de C.V.; a meat packing and cattle company in Honduras. Developed feedlot program using sugarcane feeds.
  • 1982-1985 Advisor to Tecun, Inc.; a cotton, sugarcane and cattle enterprise in Guatemala. Developed a 3000 head feedlot program using sugarcane feeds and cotton waste by-products and management system for 20,000 head cow-calf operation.
  • 1983 Advisor to Stake-Technology, Ltd., an engineering firm at Ottawa, Canada. Developed feedlot fattening program based on sugarcane bagasse treated with a steam-pressure continuous flow digester.
  • 1992 Advisor to Bishop Process International, a feed processing firm at Tampa, Florida. Traveled to and surveyed the potential of developing a feed processing plant in Guinea, West Africa.

International Activities

  • 1977-1986 Numerous trips to Central America to develop feedlots for fattening cattle with by-product feedstuffs and advise on cow-calf management systems.
  • 1982 Invited trip to Cali, Columbia, South America to participate at the Annual Meeting of the Colombian Society of Sugarcane Technologist held at International Center of Tropical Agriculture. Visited CIAT international research center and discussed cattle and forage production.
  • 1982-96 Received hundreds of international visitors at Everglades REC at Belle Glade and Range Cattle REC at Ona to discuss research programs and production practices on beef and forage production in Florida.
  • 1984 Invited trip to Trinidad to present paper and participate in seminar on the use of sugarcane product feeds for animal production. Seminar presented at University of West Indies, Sugarcane Utilization Centre.
  • 1992 Trip to Guinea, West Africa. Toured feed mills, farms and ranches to survey potential to develop feedlot feeding system based of sugarcane and sugarcane by products.
  • 1993 Trip to New Zealand and Australia to participate in International Grassland Conference. Toured ranches, farms and research units over five weeks.

Membership and Activities in the Profession

  • Research Center Administrators Society
    Member, 1985 to 2006.
    Florida Representative on Executive Committee, 1994 to 1997.
    Second Vice President, 1995-96.
    First Vice President, 1996-97.
    President, 1998-99.
    Newsletter Editor, 1995-96.
    Program Chair, 1997-98.
  • American Society of Animal Science.
    Member, 1982 to 1996.
    Joint Session Committee Member, 1983, 1984.
    Joint session Committee Chairman, 1985.
    Organized and Chaired Joint Session, NIR Feed Analysis Technology 1985.
  • Florida Cattlemen's Association
    Member 1982 to 1996.
    Research Committee Member 1983 to 1996.
    President, Hardee County Chapter 1988.

Research Accomplishments

Since promotion to Professor I have been fortunate to participate in two research and/or demonstration projects that greatly impacted beef and forage production in Florida.

  1. In a team effort with extension specialist (Dr. W. E. Kunkle) and private industry (United States Sugar Corporation) we developed a unique liquid feed supplement for cattle by mixing molasses with dry ingredients (primarily hydrolyzed feather meal) to form high, natural protein mixtures (slurries). This method significantly increased the growth and reproduction of cattle in comparison to those fed typical supplements formulated with molasses and urea. Slurries are extensively used by Florida cattlemen and feed manufactures, and the technology is rapidly being employed by the U. S. liquid feed industry.
  2. In a team effort with county extension faculty (South Florida Beef/Forage Group), statewide extension specialist (Dr. Jerry Kidder), other researchers (Dr. Jack Rechcigl) and beef cattle ranchers we successfully completed a multi-year research/demonstration project which allowed UF/IFAS to significantly reduce fertilized recommendations for bahiagrass pasture. Bahiagrass provides over 2.5 million acres of Florida pasture land, and this finding resulted in savings to the beef cattle/forage industry of millions of dollars annually.

Video Presentation---Worked with University of Florida/IFAS Media to develop news release on research that explored the use of waste restaurant grease in liquid feed supplements fed to cattle. Video was selected for broadcast by all major TV markets in the US, and by CNN news. News story was broadcast by Paul Harvey News and a number of radio markets world wide. A radio interview was broadcast by Radio Canada and several smaller radio markets in the US. Article and photos on news release was featured by hundreds of newspapers in the US and around the world. Story ranked second as the most widely broadcast news release by the University of Florida in 1994, as ranked by UF President Lombardi's 'Dateline: UF in the News'.


Selected Publications

Articles published in, "The Peace River Farmer and Rancher"

Scientific Journals

  • Pate, F. M. 1982. Value of treating bagasse with steam under pressure for cattle feed. Tropical Agri. 59:293-297.
  • Pate, F. M., J. R. Crockett, and J. D. Phillips. 1985. Effect of calf weaning age and cow supplementation on cow productivity. J. Animal Sci. 61:343-348.
  • Pate, F. M., P. M. Fairhurst and J. T. K. Munthali. 1985. Urea levels and energy sources in sugarcane diets. J. Animal Sci. 61:252-259.
  • Pate, F. M., D. W. Sanson, and R. V. Machen. 1990. Value of a molasses mixture containing natural protein as a supplement to brood cows offered low-quality forages. J. Animal Sci. 68:618-623.
  • Kalmbacher, R. S., W. F. Brown, and F. M. Pate. 1995. Effect of molasses based liquid supplements on the digestibility of creeping bluestem and performance of mature cows on winter range. J. Animal Sci. 73:853-860.
  • Pate, F. M., W. F. Brown, and A. C. Hammond. 1995 Value of feather meal in a molasses-based liquid supplement fed to yearling cattle consuming a forage diet. J. Animal Sci. 73:2865-2872.
  • Brown, W. F. and F. M. Pate. 1996. Cottonseed meal or feather meal supplementation of ammoniated tropical grass hay for yearling cattle. J. Animal Sci. (75:1666-1673).

Applied Articles

  • Pate, F. M., J. R. Crockett, and J. D. Phillips. 1982. At what age should Florida calves be weaned? Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J. 47(No. 3):48-50.
  • Pate, F. M., J. Alvarez, J. D. Phillips, and B. R. Eiland. 1984. Sugarcane as a cattle feed: production and utilization. pp. 24. Fla. Agri. Expt. Sta. Bul. 844.
  • Pate, F. M. 1984. Sugarcane as a roughage in cattle diets. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J., Vol 48(No. 4):62.
  • Pate, F. M., E. L. Adams, and J. R. Crockett. 1984. Feeding Florida calves in the southeast. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J., Vol. 48(No. 8):88-89.
  • Pate, F. M., and W. E. Kunkle. 1985. Weaning beef calves at a later age to increase production. pp. 5. Fla. Agri. Expt. Sta. Cir. S-328.
  • Pate, F. M. 1985. Preventing nitrate poisoning on winter grass. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J., Vol. 50(No. 3):79.
  • Pate, F. M. 1986. Molasses-cottonseed meal-urea slurry as a winter supplement for brood cows. AREC, Ona Research Report RC 86-4.
  • Pate, F. M. 1986. Utilization of sugar cane and its by-products for cattle production. Proc., Inter-American Sugar Cane Seminar. Energy and By-products from Sugarcane, Miami, p. 270-275.
  • Pate, F. M. 1987. Molasses mixtures for winter supplementation of brood cows in south Florida. AREC, Ona Research Report RC 87-5.
  • Pate, F. M. 1987. Molasses and cottonseed meal mixture improves calf production at Ona. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J. Vol. 52 (No. 3):30-42.
  • Pate, F. M. 1988. Molasses: A good winter cow feed. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J.Vol. 53 (No. 1) p. 40.
  • Pate, F. M. 1989. Natural protein important for winter feeding brood cows. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J. Vol. 54 (No. 1): 38.
  • Pate, F. M., and W. E. Kunkle. 1989. Molasses-based feeds and their use as supplements for brood cows. pp.15. Fla. Agri. Expt. Sta. Cir. S-365.
  • Pate. F. M. 1990 Feeding molasses slurry improves calf profits. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J. Vol. 55 (No. 1):44-45.
  • Pate, F. M., J. Black, and T. Weaver. 1991. A less costly on-the-ranch molasses slurry mixer. AREC, Ona Research Report RC-1991-2.
  • Pate, F. M. 1991. A developing technology: Molasses slurries. Feed Management. Vol. 42 (No. 6):13-15, 31-32.
  • Pate, F. M. 1991. Feeding molasses slurry to cattle. 2nd Ann. Fla. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium. Gainesville, Fla., p. 66-72.
  • Pate, F. M. 1991. Supplementation programs for the cow-calf herd. Proc., 40th Ann. Beef Cattle Short Course. Univ. Fla., Fla. Coop Ext. Serv. and IFAS, p. 133-142.
  • Pate, F. M., and T. H. Spreen. 1992. Normal vs. early and late weaning: Management systems to enhance profitability due to timing of marketing. Proc., 41st Ann. Beef Cattle Short Course. Univ. Fla., Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv., and IFAS, p. 33-38.
  • Pate, F. M. 1992. South Florida's perennial pasture grasses. Fla. Cattlemen and Livestock J. Vol. 56 (No. 10):50.
  • Pate, F. M. 1992. Feeding molasses based supplements to the cow-calf herd during the summer. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J. Vol. 56 (No. 10):54-55.
  • Pate, F. M. 1993. Selenium should be included in mineral mixtures fed to cattle in Florida. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J. Vol. 58 (No. 2):44.
  • Pate, F. M., and W. E. Kunkle. 1993. Guidelines to selecting a liquid feed for winter Supplementation of producing beef cows in south Florida. University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, Report ANS-13 and REC, Ona Research Report RC 94-4, p. 24-27.
  • Pate, F. M. 1994. Natural protein important in molasses supplements for yearling heifers. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J. Vol. 58 (No. 12):79.
  • Pate, F. M. 1994. Using fats in molasses-based supplements. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J. Vol. 59 (No. 2):52.
  • Pate, F. M. 1994. The cattlemen's research station at Ona. Heartland Farmer and Rancher Vol. 2 (No. 8):6B.
  • Pate, F. M. 1994. The F-1 Brahman crossbred cow. Heartland Farmer and Rancher. Vol. 2 (No. 9):8B.
  • Pate, F. M. 1994. Additional breeding systems using Brahman blood. Heartland Farmer and Rancher. Vol. 2 (No. 10):16.
  • Pate, F. M. 1994. Procedures for weaning calves that remain on the ranch. Heartland Farmer and Rancher. Vol. 2 (No. 11):14.
  • Pate, F. M. 1994. Cost of breeding heifers as yearlings. Heartland Farmer and Rancher. Vol. 3 (No. 1):16.
  • Pate, F. M. 1994. Breeding seasons for south Florida. Heartland Farmer and Rancher. Vol. 3 (No. 2):22.
  • Pate, F. M. 1995. Cost-effective additives for liquid feeds. Proc., 44th Ann. Beef Cattle Short Course. Univ. Fla., Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv., and IFAS, p.97-101.
  • Pate, F. M. 1995. The Brahman influence on Florida beef production. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J. Vol 59 (No. 6):83 and 93.
  • Pate, F. M. 1995. Citrus molasses. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J. Vol. 59 (No. 8):26.
  • Pate, F. M. 1995. Preconditioning calves with feed on the ranch. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J. Vol. 59 (No. 11):60.
  • Pate, F. M. 1995. What should be the length of the breeding season? Heartland Farmer and Rancher. Vol. 3 (No. 3):15.
  • Pate, F. M. 1996. Protein supplementation of the cow herd. Fla. Cattleman and Livestock J. Vol. 60 (No. 12):26.
  • Pate, F. M. 1996. Planning summer legumes for bahia pastures. Heartland Farmer and Rancher. Vol. 4 (No. 7):15.
  • Pate, F. M. 1996. Value of fat in liquid feed. 7th Ann. Fla. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium. Gainesville, Fla., p. 42-48.
  • Pate, F. M. 1996. How can I reduce operating cost and maintain a viable operation. Proc., 45th Ann. Beef Cattle Short Course. Univ. Fla., Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv., and IFAS, p. 13-16.
  • Pate, F. M., and R. S. Kalmbacher. 1996. Molasses supplements for mature, lactating beef cows grazing range. pp. 5. Fla. Agri. Expt. Sta. Bull. 897.
  • Pate, F. M., and R. S. Kalmbacher. 1998.Evaluation of breeding seasons for brood cows grazing winter range and bahiagrass pasture in South Florida. pp. 6. Fla. Agri. Expt. Sta. Bull. 904.